What Are Building Systems In Architecture?
Architecture-&-Building Systems (ABSs) are the main material and technological means for implementing the architectural environment and play a leading role in the solution of housing problems and sustainable development. They have a major role to play in driving scientific and technical advancement in the area of architecture and urban growth. This term is used to refer to a framework of organized architectural, constructive and technical decisions based on universal methodology. The ABSs are built to shape a pleasant atmosphere and at the same time, are the material and technological means of establishing such an environment for the system of material entities.
At the same time, the need to construct a fully-fledged living environment and to solve the problems of complexity and esthetic quality of residential construction depends to a large extent on the use of advanced architectural and urban development strategies and the implementation of effective building systems, materials, products and technologies, and the enhancement and transformation of buildings. The availability of new methods for the integrated evaluation of such solutions in the sense of sustainable design should be noted. At the same time the main issue is to assess the growth plan and the prospects for developing the architectural and construction structures of civilian buildings.
Such structures are recognized in the practice of housing. It’s essentially like prefabricated large-panel systems, prefabricated structure systems, modular cell systems, block systems, monolithic systems, and their variations, but they don’t always fulfill current social and economic criteria and continuously improve. At present, the construction market is evolving and increasing, with new and varied construction decisions. For a holistic view and a thorough solution to this issue, it is important to understand and describe the meaning, definition and evolution of the ABS, which is the purpose of this article.
The use of various construction materials and prefabricated ABS components for the construction of buildings has been known for a long time. Even in the pre-class and early-class society, human beings mastered the use of basic natural building materials, learned how to process them and how to produce them (wood, brick raw, burnt bricks, stone, mortar). Key building features emerge: foundations, sturdy walls, rack-beam fencing systems, beams and vaulted ceilings. Over time, a consistent design of the composition of the building has been established: the tectonic construction of the wall, the decoration of the rack-beam design in the form of the ordering system, certain architectural and design concepts of the proportional construction of the buildings and their individual sections.
In the early birth of architecture, two ways of framing space were used: a blank wall and rhythmically arranged vertical pillars. As a prototype of the second alternative, the central part of the cromlech can be considered in Stonehenge (England, second half of the 2nd millennium BC). The concept of the rack-beam structural framework and the architectural mass distribution of the active and passive elements was clearly articulated in this round building with a diameter of 30 m. Framed systems appeared in the same span of time. Framed by a positive solution, the oldest sanctuary of the early kingdoms of Egypt was made of woven reeds, stuck on wooden risers.
Further construction of the system of the pillar-beam included the different countries of the ancient world. Gradually an order was formed-still a system of pillar-beam structures subordinated to the laws of a certain figurative theory, according to which the dimensions are defined by the module, acquiring unique proportions. The foundation of the order was the artistically built vertical pillar with the base and the capital-column supporting the horizontal element-the beamed ceiling.
It is difficult to solve the problems of modern housing and urban growth without new approaches and methods of design, development, management and organization of architectural engineering, technical and industrial decisions. Architecture-&-Building Systems (ABSs) play a very important role here. This term is used to refer to a framework of organized architectural, constructive and technical decisions based on universal methodology. In the absence of a specific description of the concept of ABS, which is popular in professional languages and literature, this concept is specified in the article and its meaning is given. The proposed structure of the ABS model consists of three hierarchically subordinate subsystems and provides a lower-level classification of the generalization of the elements-up to the primary elements of the architecture and building systems. It has an open character that enables it to function.
Analysis of the development of architectural and building systems revealed the two key forms in which they were created and developed: ABSs, designed for the construction of one or more buildings on the basis of specially crafted architectural building elements; ABSs, designed for the mass construction of buildings on the basis of serial production of unified architectural and building products and components. The second path has four main stages in the evolution of ABS since the beginning of industrial production in the 18th century, in line with the growth of building materials, structures and technologies.